Public Papers - 1990
Excerpts of White House Fact Sheets on Soviet-United States Bilateral Agreements
At Malta, President Bush proposed targeting the June summit for completion of a MFN (most-favored-nation trade status) commercial agreement, provided that the Soviets approve and implement new emigration legislation. New emigration legislation passed the first reading in the Supreme Soviet in November. The Second Supreme Soviet reading, which would codify the law, was set for May 31. No serious opposition has appeared, but the press of other business could delay final passage. We have emphasized to the Soviets at all levels the importance of expeditious passage.
This agreement breaks much new ground in commercial agreements with the Soviets. Specifically, it:
provides improved market access, for example, by prohibiting adoption of standards which are discriminatory or designed to protect domestic production;
facilitates business by establishing expedited accreditation procedure for commercial offices, allowing offices to hire directly local and third-country employees on mutually agreed terms, permitting access to all advertising media, and allowing companies to engage and serve as agents and to conduct market studies; and
offers strong intellectual property rights protections by reaffirming commitments to the Paris Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention, obligating adherence to the Bern Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, providing copyright protection for computer programs and data bases and protection for sound recordings; providing product and process patent protection for virtually all areas of technology; and providing comprehensive coverage of trade secrets.
The Soviets have reaffirmed their commitment, once they receive MFN and USG lending restrictions (Stevenson and Byrd amendments) are lifted, to resume lend-lease repayments.
Long-Term Grains Agreement
The new agreement is to take effect January 1, 1991.
The Soviets are required to buy a minimum of 10 million metric tons of grain from the United States annually (up from 9 million metric tons), including at least 4 million metric tons of wheat; 4 million metric tons of feed grains (corn, barley, or sorghum); and 2 million additional metric tons of either wheat, feed grains, or soybeans/soymeal, with soy measures counted double for purposes of quantity.
The Soviets may buy up to 14 million metric tons annually (up from 12 million metric tons) without prior consultation with the Department of Agriculture.
U.S.-U.S.S.R. Chemical Weapons Destruction Agreement
The U.S.-U.S.S.R. Bilateral Agreement
The key provisions of the destruction agreement are:
Destruction of the vast bulk of declared stocks to begin by the end of 1992.
Destruction of at least 50 percent of declared stocks by the end of 1999.
Declared stocks are to be reduced to 5,000 agent tons by 2002.
Both countries will stop producing chemical weapons upon entry into force of this agreement, without waiting for the global chemical weapons ban.
On-site inspections during and after the destruction process to confirm that destruction has taken place.
Annual exchanges of data on the stockpile levels to facilitate monitoring of the declared stockpiles.
Details of the inspection procedures will be worked out by December 31, 1990.
Both countries will cooperate in developing and using safe and environmentally sound methods of destruction.
The United States and U.S.S.R. will take steps to encourage all chemical weapons-capable states to become parties to the multilateral convention.
Both countries took an initial step in this direction by exchanging data on declared chemical weapons stockpiles in December 1989 and by initiating verification experiments to build confidence and gain experience for a chemical weapons ban treaty.
This agreement will be submitted to Congress for its review and approval.
A Global Chemical Weapons Ban
The bilateral U.S.-Soviet agreement was designed to provide new impetus to the conclusion of a comprehensive, verifiable global chemical weapons ban at the earliest possible date. Toward that end:
Both countries have agreed to accelerate their destruction of chemical weapons under a global chemical weapons convention so that by the eighth year after it enters into force, the United States and U.S.S.R. will have reduced their declared stocks to no more than 500 agent tons.
The United States and U.S.S.R. will propose that a special conference be convened at the end of the eighth year of a multilateral convention to determine whether participation in the convention is sufficient to complete the elimination of chemical weapons stocks over the following 2 years.
The Nuclear Testing Protocols
Two verification protocols being signed at the Washington summit will provide for effective verification of compliance with the treaties.
Verification methods for Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET) include hydrodynamic yield measurement, on-site inspection, and some seismic monitoring on the territory of the testing party. The U.S. hydrodynamic method is CORRTEX [Continuous Reflectrometry for Radius versus Time Experiments] is the most accurate nonintrusive technique the United States has found. CORRTEX determines the yield by measuring, at the detonating site, the rate at which the supersonic shock wave in the ground crushes co-axial cable buried near the explosive device. On-site inspections permit each side to take core samples and rock fragments from the area of the explosion to confirm geological/geophysical data near the explosion. Seismic monitors measure distant shock waves produced by the explosion (as in measuring earthquakes) in order to arrive at an estimate of the explosive yield.
National technical means also will be used to monitor all explosions.
How the Protocols Work
PNET verification: Both sides have the right to hydrodynamic measurement (CORRTEX for the United States) for explosions with planned yields above 50 kilotons; the right to on-site inspections for explosions with planned yields above 35 kilotons; the right to a local seismic network for a group explosion above 150 kilotons.
TTBT verification: the right to hydrodynamic measurements of nuclear weapons tests with planned yields above 50 kilotons; on-site inspection for tests with planned yields above 35 kilotons; in-country seismic monitoring for tests with planned yields above 50 kilotons, using three designated seismic stations off the test site but within the testing party's territory; special provisions for monitoring unusual cases: tests with nonstandard geometries, tests with multiple nuclear explosions; in each of the first 5 years of the treaty, if a side does not have at least 2 tests with planned yields above 50 kilotons, the other side may use hydrodynamic measurement that year on up to 2 tests with planned yields below 50 kilotons.
Required notifications under TTBT (PNET notifications are similar): Each June, the parties will inform each other of the number of explosions with planned yields above 35 kilotons and 50 kilotons for the following calendar year. No later than 200 days prior to the planned date of any explosion, the other side would have the right, under protocol provisions, to monitor; the testing party must provide notification of the planned date, location, and whether the planned yield exceeds 35 or 50 kilotons. Within 20 days of receipt of such notification, the verifying party must inform the testing party whether it plans to carry out verification activities, and, if so, which type.
Under both treaties, joint commissions will be used to discuss implementation and verification issues.
Once the protocols are signed, the administration will seek Senate advice and consent as to ratification of the TTBT and the PNET and their protocols.
Customs Cooperation Agreement
The agreement provides for mutual assistance between the customs services of the United States and the U.S.S.R.
The agreement provides the basis for cooperative activity in deterring and detecting narcotic trafficking.
The agreement is designed to strengthen cooperative measures which the two services typically undertake.
The agreement provides a formal basis for cooperation in areas of customs law enforcement assistance, export control, and commercial fraud.
U.S.-U.S.S.R. Maritime Boundary Agreement
The parties agree that the line described as the ``western limit'' in the 1867 U.S.-Russia convention ceding Alaska is the maritime boundary along its entire length.
Further, the agreement contains innovative provisions to ensure that all areas within 200 miles of either coast fall under the resource jurisdiction of one or the other party. The U.S.S.R. transfers to the United States jurisdiction in three ``special areas'' within 200 miles of the Soviet coast, beyond 200 miles of the U.S. coast, and on the U.S. side of the maritime boundary. The United States transfers to U.S.S.R. jurisdiction in one ``special area'' within 200 miles of the U.S. coast, beyond 200 miles of the Soviet coast, and on the Soviet side of the maritime boundary.
Cultural Centers Agreement
The Centers -- constituted as non-diplomatic, nonprofit institutions -- will be opened in Washington and Moscow.
The Center Directors and one Deputy Director for each side are to have diplomatic titles and be accredited by their governments to their respective Embassies, with this exception: Center personnel, properties, and papers will not have diplomatic status.
The Centers will carry out a variety of functions, e.g. operating libraries; sponsoring seminars, films, and performances; and providing student counseling and language instruction.
The public is guaranteed free, unrestricted access to the Centers.
The U.S. Center in Moscow has the right to use rubles to cover domestic operating expenses.
Occupancy and opening dates will be determined by mutual agreement on basis of reciprocity.
The agreement is to take effect after an exchange of notes confirming each side has completed the domestic measures required for implementation.
Agreement on Expansion of Undergraduate University Exchanges
Increase existing exchanges (750 U.S. and 250 Soviet) by 250 students both ways in academic year 1991 - 1992.
Increase targeted numbers to 1,500 each way by 1995 - 1996, subject to availability of funds.
Mix of private and U.S. Government funding (arrangements to be determined) to cover the costs of the Soviet participants in the United States; the U.S.S.R. is to cover all in-country costs for Americans.
Participants on both sides are to be chosen on basis of academic excellence and language proficiency.
Participants would pursue full-time academic work in a variety of disciplines, including agriculture. The preferred length of the students' participation would be 1 year, though shorter periods would be considered.
Memorandum of Understanding to Increase Circulation of America and Soviet Life Magazines
The memorandum of understanding (MOU) amends the 1989 - 1991 Program of Cooperation under General Exchanges Agreement.
The MOU provides for increased circulation of America and Soviet Life magazines up to 250,000 copies in 1991.
The distribution of both magazines after 1991 is to be governed solely by demand.
Each side may print commercial advertising and distribute unsold copies of its magazine at official premises, cultural centers, and exhibitions under its sponsorship.
Note: This item contains information excerpted from eight fact sheets released by the Office of the Press Secretary.