Public Papers - 1990
Declaration of Cartagena
The Parties consider that a strategy which commits the Parties to implement or strengthen a comprehensive, intensified anti-narcotics program must address the issues of demand reduction, consumption and supply. Such a strategy also must include understandings regarding economic cooperation, alternative development, encouragement of trade and investment, as well as understandings on attacking the traffic in illicit drugs, and on diplomatic and public diplomacy initiatives.
The Parties recognize that these areas are interconnected and self-reinforcing. Progress in one area will help achieve progress in others. Failure in any of them will jeopardize progress in the others. The order in which they are addressed in the document is not meant to assign to them any particular priority.
Economic cooperation and international initiatives cannot be effective unless there are concomitant, dynamic programs attacking the production of, trafficking in and demand for illicit drugs. It is clear that to be fully effective, supply reduction efforts must be accompanied by significant reduction in demand. The Parties recognize that the exchange of information on demand control programs will benefit their countries.
The Parties recognize that the nature and impact of the traffic in and interdiction of illicit drugs varies in each of the three Andean countries and cannot be addressed fully in this document. The Parties will negotiate bilateral and multilateral agreements, consistent with their anti-narcotics efforts, specifying their responsibilities and commitments with regard to economic cooperation and intensified enforcement actions.
A. Understandings Regarding Economic Aspects and Alternative Development
The Parties recognize that trafficking in illicit drugs has a negative long-term impact on their economies. In some of the Parties, profits from coca production and trade and from illicit drug trafficking contribute, in varying degrees, to the entry of foreign exchange and to the generation of employment and income. Suppression of coca production and trade will result in significant, immediate, and long-term economic costs that will affect, in various ways, each of the Andean countries.
The President of the United States will request Congress to authorize new funds for the program during fiscal years 1991 to 1994, in order to support the Andean Parties' efforts to counteract the short- and long-term socio-economic impact of an effective fight against illicit drugs. This contribution by the United States would be made within the framework of actions against drug trafficking carried out by the Andean Parties. The Andean Parties reiterate the importance of implementing or strengthening sound economic policies for the effective utilization of such a contribution. The United States is also prepared to cooperate with the Andean Parties in a wide range of initiatives for development, trade and investment in order to strengthen and sustain long-term economic growth.
Alternative development, designed to replace the coca economy in Peru and Bolivia and illicit drug trafficking in all the Andean Parties, includes the following areas of cooperation. In the short term, there is a need to create and/or to strengthen social emergency programs and balance of payments support to mitigate the social and economic costs stemming from substitution. In the medium and long term, investment programs and measures will be needed to create the economic conditions for definitive substitution of the coca economy in those countries where it exists or of that sector of the economy affected by narcotics trafficking. It is necessary to implement programs to preserve the ecological balance.
1. Alternative Development and Crop Substitution
In order to foster increased employment and income opportunities throughout the entire productive system and implement or enhance a sound economic policy to sustain long-term growth, the United States will support measures aimed at stimulating broad-based rural development, promoting non-traditional exports, and building or reinforcing productive infrastructure. The Parties, in accordance with the respective policies of Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and the United States, shall determine the economic assistance required to ensure sound economic policies and sustain alternative development and crop substitution, which in the medium term will help replace the income, employment and foreign exchange in the countries in which these have been generated by the illegal coca economy. The United States is prepared to finance economic activities of this kind with new and concessional resources.
In order to achieve a complete program of alternative development and crop substitution, the Parties agree that in addition to the cooperation provided by the United States, economic cooperation, as well as greater incentives to investment and foreign trade from other sources, will be needed. The Parties will make concerted efforts to obtain the support of multilateral and other economic institutions for these programs, as the three Andean Parties implement or continue sound economic policies and effective programs against drugs.
The Parties are convinced that a comprehensive fight against illicit drug traffic will disrupt the market for coca and coca derivatives and will reduce their prices. As success is achieved in this fight, those employed in growing coca and in its primary processing will seek alternative sources of income either by crop substitution or by changing jobs. The Parties will work together to identify alternative-income activities for external financing. The United States is ready to consider financing of activities such as research, extension, credit and other agricultural support services and support of private-sector initiatives for the creation of micro-enterprises and agro-industries.
The United States will also cooperate with the Andean Parties to promote viable domestic and foreign markets to sell the products generated by alternative development and crop substitution programs.
2. Mitigation of the Social and Economic Impact of the Fight Against Illicit Drug Trafficking
As the Andean Parties implement or continue to develop effective programs of interdiction of the flow of illicit drugs and of crop eradication, they will need assistance of the fast disbursement type to mitigate both small- and large-scale social and economic costs. The Parties will cooperate to identify the type of assistance required. The United States is prepared to provide balance of payments support to help meet foreign exchange needs. The United States will also consider funding for emergency social programs, such as the successful one in Bolivia, to provide employment and other opportunities to the poor directly affected by the fight against illicit drugs.
3. Trade Initiatives, Incentives to Exports and Private Foreign Investment
An increase in trade and private investment is essential to facilitate sustained economic growth and to help offset the economic dislocations resulting from any effective program against illicit drugs. The Parties will work together to increase trade among the three Andean countries and the United States, effectively facilitating access to the United States market and strengthening export promotion, including identification, development and marketing of new export products. The United States will also consider providing appropriate technical and financial assistance to help Andean agricultural products comply with the admission requirements.
The Parties may consider the establishment of economic and investment policies, as well as legislation and regulations to foster private investment. Where favorable conditions exist, the United States will facilitate private investment in the three Andean countries, taking into account the particular conditions and potential of each.
B. Understandings Regarding Attacking Illicit Drugs
The Parties reaffirm their will to fight drug trafficking in a comprehensive manner attacking all facets of the trade: production, transportation and consumption. Such comprehensive action includes the following:
-- Preventive actions to reduce consumption and therefore demand.
-- Control and law enforcement activities against illegal cultivation, processing, and marketing of illicit drugs.
-- Control of essential chemicals for the production of illegal drugs and the means used for their transport.
-- Seizure, forfeiture, and sharing of illegal proceeds and property used in committing narcotics-related crimes.
-- Coordination of law enforcement agencies, the military, prosecutors and courts, within the framework of national sovereignty of each of the Parties.
-- Actions to bring about a net reduction in the illegal cultivation of coca.
The Parties undertake to engage in an ongoing evaluation of their cooperation, so that the President of the United States, as appropriate, may request Congress to provide additional assistance to the Andean Parties.
Given that the Parties act within a framework of respect for human rights, they reaffirm that nothing would do more to undermine the war on drugs than disregard for human rights by participants in the effort.
1. Prevention and Demand
The Parties undertake to support development and expansion of programs on comprehensive prevention, such as preventive public education in both rural and urban areas, treatment of drug addicts, and information to encourage the public opposition to illegal drug production, trade and consumption. These programs are fundamental if the drug problem is to be successfully confronted.
The Parties recognize that prevention efforts in the four countries will benefit from shared information about successful prevention programs and from bilateral and multilateral cooperation agreements to expand efforts in this field.
To this end, the Parties undertake to contribute economic, material and technical resources to support such comprehensive prevention programs.
A battle against an illicit product must focus on the demand for, production of and trade in that product. Interdiction of illegal drugs, as they move from producer to consumer, is essential. The Parties pledge to step up efforts within their own countries to interdict illegal drugs and to increase coordination and cooperation among them to facilitate this fight. The United States is ready to provide increased cooperation in equipment and training to the law enforcement bodies of the Andean Parties.
3. Involvement of the Armed Forces of the Respective Countries
The control of illegal trafficking in drugs is essentially a law enforcement matter. However, because of its magnitude and the different aspects involved, and in keeping with the sovereign interest of each State and its own judicial system, the armed forces in each of the countries, within their own territory and national jurisdictions, may also participate. The Parties may establish bilateral and multilateral understandings for cooperation in accordance with their interests, needs and priorities.
4. Information Sharing and Intelligence Cooperation
The Parties commit themselves to a greater exchange of information and intelligence in order to strengthen action by the competent agencies. The Parties will pursue bilateral and multilateral understandings on information and intelligence cooperation, consistent with their national interests and priorities.
5. Eradication and Discouragement of Illicit Crops
Eradication can play an essential part in the anti-drug fight of each country. In each case, eradication programs have to be carefully crafted, measuring their possible effect on total illicit drug production in each country; their cost-benefit ratio relative to other means of fighting illicit drugs; whether they can be most effective as voluntary or compulsory programs or a combination of the two; and their probable political and social consequences.
The Parties recognize that to eradicate illicit crops, the participation of the growers themselves is desirable, adopting measures that will help them obtain legal sources of income.
New economic opportunities, such as programs for alternative development and crop substitution, shall be fostered to help to dissuade growers from initiating or expanding illegal cultivation. Our goal is a sustained reduction in the total area under illegal cultivation.
Eradication programs must safeguard human health and preserve the ecosystem.
6. Control of Financial Assets
The Parties agree to identify, trace, freeze, seize, and apply other legal procedures for the disposition of drug crime proceeds in their respective countries, and to attack financial aspects of the illicit drug trade. In accordance with their respective laws, each of the Parties will seek to adopt measures to define, categorize, and criminalize money laundering, as well as to increase efforts to implement current legislation. The Parties agree to establish formulas providing exceptions to banking secrecy.
7. Forfeiture and Sharing of Illegal Drug Proceeds
The Parties pledge to implement a system for forfeiture and sharing of illegal drug profits and assets, and to establish effective programs in this area.
In United States cases related to forfeiture of property of illegal drug traffickers where Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru provide assistance to the United States Government, the Government of the United States pledges to transfer to the assisting government such forfeited property, to the extent consistent with United States' laws and regulations. The Parties will also seek asset sharing agreements for Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru, with other countries.
8. Control of Essential Chemicals Used in the Production of Illicit Drugs
The control in the United States of the export of chemical substances used in the processing of cocaine is vital. In addition, there is a need for greater control of the import and domestic production of such substances by the Andean Parties. Joint efforts must be coordinated to eliminate the illicit trade in such substances.
The Parties agree:
-- to step up interdiction of the movements of essential chemicals that have already entered the country, legally or illegally, and are being diverted for illicit drug processing. This includes controlling choke points as well as establishing investigative and monitoring programs in close cooperation with all the Parties' law enforcement agencies.
-- to further develop an internal system to track essential chemicals through sale, resale and distribution to the end user.
-- to cooperate bilaterally and multilaterally to provide each other with information necessary to track domestic and international movements of essential chemicals for the purpose of controlling their sale and use.
-- to support the efforts under the Organization of American States (OAS) auspices to develop and implement a regional inter-American agreement on essential chemicals.
9. Control of Weapons, Planes, Ships, Explosives and Communications Equipment Used in Illegal Drug Trafficking
Illicit drug trafficking is heavily dependent on weapons, explosives, communications equipment, and air, maritime and riverine transportation throughout the illicit cultivation and the production and distribution process.
The Parties agree:
-- to strengthen controls over the movement of illegal weapons and explosives and over the sale, resale and the registration of aircraft and maritime vessels in their respective countries, which should be carried out by their own authorities.
The Parties agree to establish within their own territory control programs that include:
-- the registration of ships and aircraft;
-- the adoption of legal standards that permit effective forfeiture of aircraft and vessels;
-- controls on pilot licenses and training;
-- registration of airfields in their respective countries;
-- development of control measures over communications equipment used in illegal drug trafficking to the extent permitted by their respective laws and national interests.
The United States agrees to work with the Andean Parties to stem weapons exports from the United States to illegal drug traffickers in the three Andean nations.
10. Legal Cooperation
The Parties pledge to cooperate in the sharing of instrumental evidence in forms admissible by their judicial proceedings. The Parties also agree to seek mechanisms that permit the exchange of information on legislation and judicial decisions in order to optimize legal proceedings against the traffic in illicit drugs.
The Parties recognize the value of international cooperation in strengthening the administration of justice, including the protection of judges, judicial personnel, and other individuals who take part in these proceedings.
C. Understandings Regarding Diplomatic Initiatives and Public Opinion
The scourge of illicit drug trafficking and consumption respects no borders, threatens national security, and erodes the economic and social structures of our nations. It is essential to adopt and carry out a comprehensive strategy to promote full awareness of the destructive effects of illegal production, illicit trafficking and the improper consumption of drugs. Toward this end, the Parties commit themselves to use all political and economic means within their power to put into effect programs aimed at achieving this goal.
1. Strengthening Public Opinion in Favor of Intensifying the Fight Against Illegal Drug Trafficking
Public awareness should be enhanced also by means of active and determined diplomatic action. The Parties pledge to strengthen plans for joint programs leading to the exchange of ideas, experiences, and specialists in the field. The Parties call upon the international community to intensify a program of public information stressing the danger of drug trafficking in all of its phases. In this regard, the Parties undertake to give active support to Inter-American public awareness and demand reduction programs, and will support the development of a drug prevention education plan at the Inter-American meeting in Quito this year.
2. Economic Summit
The 1989 Economic Summit in Paris established a Financial Action Task Force to determine how governments could promote cooperation and effective action against the laundering of money gained through illegal drug trafficking.
The United States will host the next Economic Summit on July 9 - 11, 1990, in Houston. The United States will use this opportunity to seek full attention on a priority basis to the fight against illegal drug trafficking.
The Parties call upon the Economic Summit member countries, and on the other participants in the Financial Action Task Force, to give greater emphasis to the study of economic measures which may help to reduce drug trafficking. In particular, the Parties call upon the Economic Summit countries to take the steps necessary to ensure that assets seized from illicit drug trafficking in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru are used to finance programs of interdiction, alternative development and prevention in our countries.
3. Multilateral Approaches and Coordination
The Parties intend to coordinate their actions in multilateral economic institutions in order to ensure for Bolivia, Colombia and Peru, broader economic cooperation within the framework of a sound economic policy.
4. Report to the UN Special Session on Illicit Trafficking in Drugs
The United Nations has recognized that the problem of drug trafficking presents a grave threat to the security of the states and economic stability. It has called for a Global Action Plan and it has convened a Special Session, February 20 - 23, 1990, to discuss the magnitude of this problem. This will be a proper occasion to reiterate the need to bring into force as quickly as possible the UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, which provides for energetic measures against illegal drug trafficking, while recognizing the ancestral and traditional uses of coca leaf.
The Parties request that consideration be given during the Special Session to the inclusion of the cooperative efforts outlined in this document to develop concrete programs for strengthening multilateral responses to the drug problem, as recommended in Resolution No. 44/141 of the United Nations General Assembly.
5. Report to the OAS Meeting of Ministers and CICAD
The Organization of American States has called an Inter-American meeting of Ministers responsible for national narcotics programs, to be held on April 17 - 20, 1990 in Ixtapa, Mexico. The Parties urge that the meeting of Ministers and the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) give priority to the understandings set forth in this document and lend support to their early implementation within the context of regional cooperation against drugs.
6. Madrid Trilateral Meeting
The Parties stress the importance of the document issued by the Trilateral Meeting in Madrid and the efforts undertaken in Europe, particularly the participation of the European Community, with a view to adopting specific policies and initiatives against illicit trafficking of drugs.
7. World Ministerial Summit to Reduce Demand for Drugs and to Combat the Cocaine Threat
The Parties note with satisfaction the convening of a World Ministerial Summit to Reduce Demand for Drugs and to Combat the Cocaine Threat, to be held on April 9 - 11, 1990 in London. This meeting will serve to highlight the role demand reduction must play in the international community's efforts to reduce the trade in illicit drugs and will underline the social, economic and human costs of the trade. The Parties agree to coordinate their actions and future strategies in this area with the objective of building upon this important initiative.
8. Demarches to Transit Countries
Through specialized agencies of the United Nations such as the Heads of National Law Enforcement Agencies, our countries participate in important coordination efforts. The Parties undertake to strengthen cooperation with transit countries on interdiction of traffic in illicit drugs.
9. World Conference Against Illicit Drug Trafficking
In order to progress towards the goals agreed upon at the Cartagena Summit, the Parties call for a world conference in 1991 to strengthen international cooperation in the elimination of improper consumption, illegal trafficking and production of drugs.
10. Follow-Up Meeting to the Cartagena Summit
In order to follow up on progress of agreements arising under the foregoing understandings, the Parties agree to hold a high level follow-up meeting within a period of not more than six months.
Note: President George Bush of the United States, President Virgilio Barco Vargas of Colombia, President Jaime Paz Zamora of Bolivia, and President Alan Garcia Perez of Peru met on February 15 in Cartagena, Colombia. This declaration was issued jointly by all of the participants in the summit. The declaration was made available by the Office of the Press Secretary but was not issued as a White House press release.