The Library, done in the Federal style, contains a set of caned furniture attributed to Duncan Phyfe, the renowned cabinetmaker who led a large and distinguished workshop in New York from 1800 to 1820. The wood paneling in the room was cut from timbers removed from the interior of the White House during the renovation that took place in 1948-52 and is painted in a manner reflective of the early nineteenth century.

Above the Duncan Phyfe mahogany drum table (c. 1810-15), in the center of the room is a painted wood and cut glass chandelier (c. 1800) that hung in the house once owned by James Fenimore Cooper, author of The Last of the Mohicans. The neoclassical mantel (c. 1795-1805), decorated with grape-leaf swags and bellflower pendants, was removed from a house in Salem, Massachusetts. The drapery of strie silk with flambe stripe is one of the most attractive fabrics in the White House.

The Library contains 2700 volumes pertaining mostly to American life, and papers of and works by former presidents. Robert C. Robinson, who for five years spent between five and six weeks a year as a volunteer working on the White House replica, said he was most proud of the 2250 miniature books that he made, "some leaning one way, some another. Some lying flat and open to read. Most of them for the Library."